The arc of history is trending toward justice for LGBTI people worldwide, judging by the latest tallies from ILGA, the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association.
In an encouraging change from 2006, when the ILGA report listed 92 countries with laws prohibiting sexual acts between consenting same-sex adults, ILGA in its 10th annual State-Sponsored Homophobia report now cites only 76 such countries.
“The situation is still unacceptable: more than one-third of the world’s States consider same-sex sexual activity illegal,” say the 2015 report’s authors, Aengus Carroll and Lucas Paoli Itaborahy. “On the other hand, although 2013 saw an alarming rise in the number of States considering a new wave of criminalisation through ‘homosexual propaganda’ laws, in fact only a small number actually implemented them.”
Beyond the issue of national laws, they said, “we find many brave individuals, organisations operating on shoestring budgets, networks of activists, scholars, policy-makers and other professionals, risking their livelihood (and often their lives) to fight for what is right. We find lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, intersex and queer people manoeuvring through political, social, religious, cultural and linguistic battles to be recognised and respected. These are efforts, initiatives and actions that empower us.”
They took note of these changes to their list:
- Mozambique and Palau were dropped from the list because they decriminalized same-sex acts in 2014.
Lesotho also was dropped from the list after adopting a new Penal Code, which took effect in 2012. Apparently Lesotho’s former common-law crime of sodomy was eliminated by that Penal Code, which has no anti-sodomy provision.
- The Central African Republic was removed from the list on the basis that it was mistakenly added last year because of a misunderstanding of a law prohibiting same-sex intercourse in public.
- Iraq was added to the list. “While not officially codified [in Iraq], the
death sentence is implemented widely [for same-sex relations there],” the ILGA report states. The report adds:
“After the American invasion in 2003 the Penal Code of 1969 was reinstated in Iraq. This code does not prohibit same-sex relations. However, non-state actors in Iraq, including Sharia judges, continue to order executions of men and women for same-sex sexual behaviour, despite the fact that Iraq’s civil code makes no reference to same-sex sexual behaviour, does not criminalise it, and neither does the country’s (civil law) legal system defer to the sharia court. It is also known that both police and militias have frequently kidnapped, threatened and killed LGBT people.”
- Chad was added to the list because a new Penal Code of 2014 provides for 15 to 20 years in prison and a fine of 50,000 to 500,000 CFA francs (US $86 to $860) “for anyone who has sex with persons of the same sex.”
The ILGA list is essentially the same as this blog’s list of 80 countries where homosexuality is illegal. The key differences are that the blog’s list includes Indonesia, on the basis of two large Indonesian states’ anti-LGBT laws, and three political entities, including Gaza/Palestine, that have anti-LGBT laws but have not received widespread international recognition as independent countries.
The authors of the ILGA report also noted:
- In 117 countries (UN members), same-sex sexual acts between adults in private are legal.
- In 8 nations, the law provides for the death penalty for same-sex relations, “but only five (Mauritania, Sudan, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Yemen) actually implement it … [and in Iraq, with no civil law against same-sex relations] judges and militias throughout the country … issue the death sentence for same-sex sexual behaviours. Further, some provinces in Nigeria and Somalia officially implement the death penalty. We are also aware that in the Daesh(ISIS/ISIL)-held areas the death penalty is implemented.”
“Brunei Darussalam is due to activate the death penalty for same-sex sexual acts in 2016, but it seems likely that like Pakistan, Afghanistan and Qatar although it is on the statute, it will not be implemented.”
- “Regarding the recent legal practice, emerging from Russian provinces first in 2006, to criminalise the ‘propaganda of homosexuality,’ it is with some relief that we note that in fact to date only four countries actually appear to have adopted this on their statute books: Algeria, Lithuania, Nigeria and Russia.
- “Discrimination in employment based on sexual orientation is now prohibited in 63 countries, including Chile (2012), Samoa (2013), Namibia (2004) and city of Buenos Aires in Argentina (2015).”
- “A total of 7 countries have a constitutional prohibition to discrimination based on sexual orientation, including Mexico (2011) and Virgin Islands (2007) – associate of the United Kingdom.”
- “Hate crimes based on sexual orientation are considered an aggravating circumstance in 34 countries. Laws in this respect have been identified in several European countries, including Andorra (2005), parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2013), Iceland (2004), Kosovo (2013), Lithuania (2009), Montenegro (2010), Norway (1994), Serbia (2012), Slovakia (2013), Slovenia (2008).”
- “Incitement of hatred based on sexual orientation is prohibited in 31 countries. Austria has introduced such law in 2011, Hungary in 2013, Montenegro in 2010 and Switzerland in 2015.”
- “Marriage is open for same-sex couples in 18 countries, including in Luxembourg and Slovenia, both in 2015. The state of Coahuila in Mexico and 19 further states in the United States of America have passed same-sex marriage laws in 2014, bringing the total number of states legislating for marriage equality to 37 (plus the District of Columbia). Finland approved a marriage equality law in 2015 that will come into force in 2017, while Estonia approved a similar law in 2014, to come into force in 2016.”
- “Joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in 19 countries. It was legalised in Luxemburg and Malta in 2014, and in Austria , Ireland and Slovenia in 2015.”